Image/Model Hiding, Tamper proofing, and Watermarking

In the last two years (2000-2001), we have proposed six wavelet-based image watermarking and hiding approaches. The embedded watermark images cab be bi-level, gray-level, or color images. Five out of the six methods don’t need the original host image to extract the embedded watermarks. Moreover, we emphasize the watermarking properties of imperceptibility and robustness, we used the concepts of significant wavelet tree (contrast to Shapiro‘s wavelet zerotree), energy measurement, and fuzzy inference filter to enlarge the imperceptibility and robustness in our approaches. In general, the imperceptibility and robustness are trade-off, therefore we also provide the technique of adaptive casting, let the user can completely control the weights of imperceptibility and robustness according their desire.

Though we have obtained many excellent results, many problems are still worthy to study: such as, (1) the theoretical background of robust watermarking techniques, (2) video watermarking and hiding, (3) evaluation criteria for image watermarking and hiding, (4) the integer wavelet transform, (5) the high-capacity watermarking, (6) the technique of blind watermarking, (7) the technique of multiple watermarking, (8) the 3D model watermarking and hiding, (9) the technique of fragile watermarking, etc. Thus, all above hiding and watermarking problems are our study topics in the future.

 

Partial results: Image Hiding & Watermarking , Model tamper proofing 

 

Study members: M.-S. Hsieh, I.-C. Lin, C.-M. Chou, C.-I. Liu, C.-K. Yang, and C.-T. Tseng

                                            (K.-I. Wang)

 

 

The Meanings of Image Hiding & Watermarking

 

 

 

               (a) Host image (512´512).                              (c) Watermarked image   (PSNR = 41.2006).

 

                                                         

                  (b) Watermark (64´64).                            (d) Extracted watermark (correlation = 0.9997).

              

 

 

 Image Hiding and Watermarking

 

Table 1. Watermarking Performance with Different Host Images

Host image

Baboon

Jet

Lena

Milk

Pepper

Scene

Tiffany

PSNR of watermarked image

38.6663

37.3786

41.2006

45.0991

44.9570

42.2608

38.9071

Extracted watermark

Correlation

0.9997

0.9996

0.9995

0.9840

0.9852

0.9982

0.9854

 

 

Table 2. Watermarking Performance for Different Watermarking Images

Watermarks

Baboon

Jet

Lena

Milk

Scene

Tiffany

PSNR of

watermarked image

41.1070

40.9660

41.1918

41.1496

41.1092

41.1845

Extracted watermark

Correlation

0.9996

0.9993

0.9997

0.9999

0.9997

0.9994

 

 

Table 3. Extracted Watermarking under JPEG Attacks with Different CR

Compression ratio

12

20.6

32.3

65.2

Extracted watermark

Correlation

0.9838

0.9616

0.9239

0.8519

 

 

Table 4. Extracted Watermarking under JPEG Attacks with Different Host Images

Host image

Baboon

Jet

Milk

Pepper

Scene

Tiffany

Compression ratio

30.3

30.4

30.4

30

30

30

Extracted watermark

Correlation

0.8643

0.9314

0.8665

0.7885

0.8954

0.8073

 

 

Table 5. Extracted Watermarking under JPEG 2000 Attacks with Different CR

Compression ratio

11

20

32

64

Extracted watermark

Correlation

0.9756

0.9463

0.9087

0.6899

 

 

Table 6. Extracted Watermarking under Various Image Processing and Compression Attacks

Attacks

Median filter (M)

Sharpen

(S)

M + S

S + M + J 12.7

S + M + J 20.6

S + M + J 32.3

S + M + J 65.2

Extracted watermark

Correlation

0.9044

0.9288

0.9307

0.9292

0.9274

0.9205

0.8768

 

 

 

  Model Tamper Proofing